• 2019-07
  • 2019-08
  • 2019-09
  • 2019-10
  • 2019-11
  • 2020-03
  • 2020-07
  • 2020-08
  • EPA is known to exhibit anti inflammatory effects


    EPA is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects through a variety of mechanisms including decreased production of chemoattractants, down-regulation of NFκB, production of eicosanoids competing with pro-inflammatory molecules and other processes [35]. At the same time, inflammatory model of chronic fatigue is one of the most widely accepted; pro-inflammatory cytokines originating from systemic or peripheral inflammation act on the brain and initiate so called sickness behaviour characterised by loss of appetite, sleepiness, decreased social activity, depression and fatigue [36], [37]. Hypothetically, the decrease of EPA levels may result in the downregulation of anti-inflammatory pathways and promote the development of fatigue. This is additionally supported by the observed elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein in people reporting fatigue in the CWP group. Given that the reduced EPA levels found in our study were unique to individuals with CWP and fatigue combined, it suggests there may be notable differences between fatigue in individuals with CWP in comparison to people who present with fatigue alone. Among the metabolites that were found at least nominally statistically significantly associated with fatigue in the non-CWP group, the top ones were amino-acids 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, glutamate, N-acetylthreonine, and 3-methylhistidine, and a peptide gamma-glutamylvaline (Supplementary Table 2). This suggests that fatigue reported by the non-CWP group may rather be related to muscle fatigue and wasting [38], and thus is intrinsically distinct from fatigue reported by the CWP group. Apart from EPA, other essential fatty acids, such as docosapentaenoate (DPA) and docosahexaenoate (DHA) were decreased in fatigue in CWP group, though these did not reach the statistical significance threshold (Supplementary Table 3). All these metabolites occur in the body via dietary routes; either via direct consumption of ω-3 containing foods (e.g. fish or fish oils) or via the dietary precursor alpha-linolenic M3814 (nedisertib) [39]. There are a number M3814 (nedisertib) of reasons why low EPA levels may be seen in individuals at risk of fatigue in CWP. One of these may be significant dietary differences between those with CWP and controls. Individuals with CWP more likely to have a diet high in fat and low in fruit and vegetables [18]; this type of “Western” style diet has been found to be low in ω-3 fatty acids (reflected in low consumption of fish, fruit and vegetables) despite high amounts of saturated fats [40]. It is unknown as to why such dietary differences are found in individuals with CWP, although it can be hypothesised that it may be related to common comorbid factors such as a depressive mood state, which may lead to greater consumption of high fat foods which induce a pleasurable mood state during or shortly after consumption [41]. A reduction in dietary quality below some critical level could feasibly lead to further ill health due to a lack of nutrients, including low levels of EPA. This raises a question of “healthy/normal” levels of EPA and other essential fatty acids. At present, despite a growing scientific literature devoted to supplementation in various states of ill health, the normal range of circulating EPA is yet to be agreed [42]. Given that TwinsUK is known to be representative of a general population [26], the levels of ω-3 fatty acids measured in our sample could serve as a normal baseline for Northern Europeans of a respective age group. Unfortunately, the Metabolon platform used in the current study do not allow absolute quantification of the metabolites; therefore, we cannot provide such values in our sample from TwinsUK. However, the absolute levels of ω-3 fatty acids were reported for about 900 generally healthy middle age and elderly women from the same TwinsUK resource using another platform: DHA 0.14±0.05mmol/L; EPA+DHA 0.44±0.14mmol/L [43]. In the CWP group, we also observed an association between fatigue and CMPF and C-glycosyltryptophan with a significant mediation effect of BMI. To the best of our knowledge, none of these metabolites are currently known to be related to chronic pain or fatigue, though C-glycosyltryptophan is associated with aging and age-related traits [27] and CMPF is related to chronic renal failure and renal cell damage [44]. Thus, these metabolites may be considered as new biomarkers of fatigue in CWP and their study may improve our understanding of the nature of this condition.